In-text citations are in the body of your paper - (AUTHOR, DATE)
In-text citations tell the readers of your paper who is responsible for the ideas and data you are writing about.
An in-text citation is needed when you refer to or mention something you read, and when you summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source.
For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in the reference list of the paper.
The in-text citation does not include all the information about the source - only AUTHOR and DATE (and page number for direct quotes). The reference list provides the full details.
.... in the body of a paper... in-text citations - paraphrasing examples:
Eagly and Carli (2003) suggest that the female leadership style is more effective in the contemporary business environment. They also note that due to the glass ceiling phenomenon, women must demonstrate extra competence to reach managerial positions and corporate boards. Rosener (1990) states that female leaders are more flexible and better able to deal with ambiguity than male leaders are. These abilities are essential factors for the success of any modern business in an uncertain context (Eagly & Carli, 2003).
... end of the paper ... the reference list
Eagly, A.H., & Carli, L.L. (2003). The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 807-834.
Rosener, J.B. (1990). How women lead. Harvard Business Review, 68(6), 119, 125.
APA Style in-text citations include the author and date, either both inside parentheses or with the author names in running text and the date in parentheses. Here are two examples of in-text citation:
The "and" in Smith and Wexwood is written as an ampersand (&) inside parentheses and as the word and outside of parentheses, as shown in the examples above.
In your assignment, anytime you use someone's ideas and words you must include an in-text citation.
Every in-text citation has a corresponding reference in your reference list. A reference contains all the information someone would need to go back to the original source you used.
Esty and Winston (2009) claim, "Careful use of the environmental perspective can help to reduce costs and risks" (p. 282). However, this statement is another example of over-simplification...
Esty, D.C. & Winston, A.S. (2009). Green to gold: How smart companies use environmental strategy to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. Yale University Press.
Climate change is impacting companies and will likely change how business is conducted globally. Esty and Winston (2009) state,
Behind the Green Wave lie two interlocking sources of pressure. First, the limits of the natural world could constrain business operations, realign markets, and threaten the planet's well-being. Second, companies face a growing spectrum of stakeholders who are concerned about the environment. (p. 8)
The "Green Wave" that Esty and Winston (2009) refer to means......
If the authors were not used to introduce this quotation in the sentence prior the block quote, the citation at the end of the quote needs to include the author names, as well as the year and page.
|...concerned about the environment. (Esty & Winston, 2009, p. 8)|
Esty, D.C. & Winston, A. S. (2009). Green to gold: How smart companies use environmental strategy to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. Yale University Press.
References appear at the end of your assignment with the heading, References.This is a reference list.
A citation in the body of your paper must have a reference in the reference list.
If you read a book or an article while researching, but you do not paraphrase or quote this information in your paper, do not include this source in your reference list.
APA Style provides guidelines for different types of sources: book, articles, reports, etc. Click to open the tab
If your instructor requires, a reference list may also be organized with headings by type (articles, books, websites, etc).
View the SAMPLE PAPER
Click the tab EXAMPLES and find references for many different sources: books, articles, databases, online...
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter to start subtitle. Publisher.
These videos from OWLPurdue teach how to set up in-text citations, a reference list, and teaches the basics of creating citations.
Learn more about this Sample Paper. Watch the video by Purdue University.
Developed by the Academic Writing AUT
Developed by the Academic Writing AUT
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