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APA Citation

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Do you want to learn more about creating citations and references?

Watch a video tutorial on creating an article reference.

Scroll down. Learn how to create references and citations for books, articles, reports, video, sound, images, and personal communication.

Creating a Reference. The Parts.

Close-up of a reference:

Here is a typical reference for a book:

Zacharakis, A. (2011). Business plans that work: A guide for small business. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


LastName, A.A.                     Folsom, R.H.

Multiple authors                  Hwang, J., Manganini, S., & Eglinton, T.

Group/corporate author     National Institute on White Collar Crime

  • Authors' names are written last name - COMMA - first name initials (and middle name initial, if known).
  • More than one author. List the names in the order that they are listed on the publication, separated by COMMAS, with "&" before the last author's name.
  • An author can be a company, organization, and government agency. Use the name of the group as the author.
  • If there is no author and no group/corporate author, begin the reference with the title in the author-place. Use a shortened version of the title in when using in-text citations.

(Publication year)             (2016).

(Publication year)             (2010, January 12).

no date                               (n.d.).

  • Publication year in parentheses, followed by a period.
  • If there is no publication date (look carefully to determine this!), use (n.d.). That stands for "no date."

Book title             Marketing 4.0: Moving from traditional to digital.

Report title         2012 annual report of the American Psychological Association.

Article title          Managing our hub economy: Interaction. 

Periodical title    Harvard Business Review, 96 (1), 17.

  • Include the full title and subtitle.
  • Capitalization: Books, ebooks, reports, webpages. Capitalize the first letter of the title and the subtitle.
  • Capitalization: Article titles: Capitalize the first letter of the title and the subtitle. Article titles are not in italics.
  • Capitalization: For periodical titles (journals, magazines, newspapers). Capitalize ALL major words, and put the periodical title in italics. After the title, add a comma and the volume number in italics.
  • Book, ebook, report, and web page titles have only the first word of the title and subtitle capitalized and are written in italics. 
Publication information

The rest of the reference provides the information needed to find the source you used. These details may include: the editor, edition number, publisher's name and location, volume number, issue number, page numbers, digital object identifier (doi), or URL.

Books and Ebooks


 Author. (Publication Date). Title of book. Place of Publication: Publisher.

General book example:

Other book examples:

Edition other than the first
Atkinson, A. A. (2001). Management accounting (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle
     River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Chapter from a book
Eisenstein, E.M., & Lodish, L.M. (2002). Marketing decision support and
     intelligent systems: Precisely worthwhile or vaguely worthless? In B.A.
     Weitz & R. Wensley (Eds.), Handbook of marketing (pp.436-456).
     London: SAGE.


Author. (Publication Date). Title of Book. [Ebook version, if applicable]. 
     Available/Retrieved from URL

General ebook example:

Ebook from Ebook Central (via Proquest) (include the URL leading to information on how to obtain the material for ebooks accessed through subscription database)

Other ebook examples:

Ebook available via direct link
Martin, B. (1998). Information liberation. Retrieved from

Ebook from Ebook readers
Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success [Kindle DX
     version]. Retrieved from

  • For in-text citation, when page number is not available, use chapter/section/paragraph number instead.  For example:
One of the author’s main points is that “people don’t rise from nothing” 
(Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).




Articles from Print Journals

Journal Paginated by Issue:
Author. (Publication Date). Title of article. Journal title, Volume(issue), page range.

Journal Paginated by Volume:
Author. (Publication Date). Title of article. Journal title, Volume, page range.

Articles with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

Author. (Publication Date). Title of article. Journal title, Volume(issue), page numbers.

  • A DOI may be found on the document itself, in a database record, or in a database-generated citation.


 Articles with no DOI

Author. (Publication Date). Title of article. Journal title, Volume(issue), page numbers.
     Available/Retrieved from URL/Document URL


   1.  Article from subscription database (give the URL for the publisher of the information, OR the database that you retrieved it from).
  Demos, T. (2009, August 17). Argentina's cattle crisis. Fortune, 160(3), 22.
     Available from        

  Valdes, C. (2006). Brazil's booming agriculture faces obstacles. Amber Waves, 4(5), 28-35.
     Retrieved from

   2.  Article from open access source (include the exact URL for the article)
   Badke, W. (2008). A rationale for information literacy as a credit-bearing
     discipline. Journal of Information Literacy, 2(1). Retrieved from 


Reports, Profiles, Annual Reports

Report or Profile

Author. (Publication Date). Title of report. Name of source. Available/Retrieved from

  • If the report or profile was not written by an individual author, then move the name of the source to the beginning of the citation.


  1. Mintel market research report
    Mintel. (2003). Automobile maintenance and repair - US - August 2003.
         Available from

  2. Datamonitor company profile
    Datamonitor. (2008, August 22). Google Inc. Available from

  3. Industry profile from Standard & Poor's with an individual author
    Bokhari, Z. (2008, October 16). Computers: Software. Standard & Poor's
         Industry Surveys. Available from

Annual Report or SEC Filing

Name of company. (Publication Date). Form or filing title. Available/Retrieved from


  1. Annual Report from a Company Website
    Microsoft. (2009). Annual report. Retrieved from

  2. SEC Filing from Subscription Database
    Microsoft. (2005, September 25). Form 10-Q. Available from Mergent
         Online database.

Video, Sound & Image

Film, Video, or DVD

Producer’s last name, first initial (Producer), & director's last name, first initial
             (Director). (Year of the film's release).  Film Title. [Motion picture].  Country of
             origin: Name of the movie studio.


     1.  Hitchcock, A. (Producer/Director). (1941). Suspicion. [Motion picture]. United
: Turner.

     2.  Ruddy, A. (Producer).  Coppola, F (Director).  (1972).  The Godfather.  [Motion
               picture].  United States: Paramount Pictures.

Television Series

Producer’s last name, first initial (Producer).  (Date of broadcast).  Title of
[Television series].  City of origin: Studio or distributor.


     Crane, D & Kauffman, M (Producers).  (1994).  Friends [Television series].  New
            York: National Broadcasting Company.

Single Episode of a Television Series

Writer’s last name, first initial (Writer), & Director’s last name, first initial (Director).
          (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In
          Producer’s first initial, last name (Producer), Series title. City of origin: Studio
          or distributor.


Carlock, R. (Writer), & Halvorson, G (Director).  (2003).  The one with the cake
          [Television series episode].  In D. Crane & M. Kauffman (Producers),
          Friends. New York: National Broadcasting Company.

Music Recording

Songwriter's last name, first initial. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by
            artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording].
            Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).


Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John].
             On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England:
             Big Pig Music Limited.


Author's last name, first initial. (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of                  work [Type of work], Retrieved date, from: URL (if retrieved electronically)


Kulbis, M. (Photographer). (2006). Men pray [Photograph], Retrieved April 12, 2006,               from:

Presentation slides

Author. (Publication date). Title of presentation [Type of material]. Retrieved from                   URL


Kapterev, Alexei.  (2007). Death by PowerPoint [PowerPoint slides].  Retrieved from       

VIDEO. Getting Started with APA Style

VIDEO. Create a citation for articles from journals and websites

This video tutorial teaches how to create ARTICLE citations and references.

Produced by University of Vermont: Dana Medical Library