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APA Citation: Examples

Click through the tabs to learn the basics, find examples, and watch video tutorials.

Reference Examples

These examples are references. The examples demonstrate the style and format required for a reference list.

Need help with in-text citation style? Click the tab Citations & Reference List. Need more help? Ask us!

Articles

Article - print

Iansiti, M., Lakhani, K. R., McBrien, K., & Moon, M. (2017). Managing our hub economy: Strategy, ethics, and network competition in the age of digital superpower. Harvard Business Review, 95(5), 84-92.

Article format:   

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Magazine/Journal/Newspaper, Volume(Issue ), Page numbers.

Online Journal Article

Klein, G., & Aubry, M. (2017). Introducing the issue on megaprojects. Project Management Journal, 48(6), 3-4. Retrieved from www.pmi.org/PMJ

Wang, J., Meric, G., Liu, Z., & Meric, I. (2010). A comparison of the determinants of stock returns in the 1987 and 2008 stock market meltdowns. Banking and Finance Review, 2(1), 15-26. Retrieved from http://www.bankingandfinancereview.com

Online Newspaper Article

Gallagher, D. (2018, February 3). Is Google losing to Amazon? The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

APA Style Blog on citing newspapers

Is this website a newspaper, magazine or journal?

"There’s no governing authority who decides what’s a newspaper versus a website versus an online magazine versus something else entirely. Best
to look at how the site refers to itself and follow the convention associated with that. So if they call themselves a newspaper, italicize the name; otherwise, don’t." APA Style Blog

If the site does not refer to itself as a newspaper, magazine or journal cite the source as a webpage - scroll down to Online - Webpage.

Article format: 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com

Newspaper format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com

Magazine format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com

Articles from library databases without doi.

Journal Article:

Arruda-Filho, E., Cabusas, J., & Dholakia, N. (2010). Social behavior and brand devotion among iPhone innovators. International Journal of Information Management, 30(6), 475-480. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Business Source Complete database.

Magazine Article:

Barkin, E. (2010, April). Jetting to greener pastures. Customer Relationship Management, 14(4), 30-33,36. Retrieved from ProQuest ABI/Inform database.

Newspaper Article:

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times, 157(54418), A1. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume(Issue), Pages. Retrieved from Database.

Format - no author:

Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. (Year, Month Day). Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume (Issue), Pages. Retrieved from Database.

Articles from library databases with doi.

Journal Article:

Gonzalez, J., Ragins, B., Ehrhardt, K., & Singh, R. (2018). Friends and family: The role of relationships in community and workplace attachment. Journal of Business & Psychology, 33(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s10869-016-9476-3

Holland, C. P. (1995). Cooperative supply chain management: The impact of interorganizational information systems. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 4(2), 117-133. doi:10.1016/0963-8687(95)80020-Q

Article format:   

Author, A. A. (Date of Publication). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Journal title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:#######

Working Papers

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 14124). Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124


Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. 123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. 123). Retrieved from www.URL.com

Source: American Psychological Association, 2010, p.206.

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Books

Book in print

Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Laudon, K.C. & Traver, C.G. (2016). E-commerce: Business, technology, society (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Lewis, R., & Dart, M. (2010). The new rules of retail: Competing in the world's toughest marketplace. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Miller, T. E., Bender, B. E., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Book with no author, but has an editor or editors:   add (Ed.) or (Eds.)

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Book format:  

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter to start subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Edition number? If the edition is known, include it in the reference - but not the first edition. APA Style Blog: Citing an Edition of a Book in APA Style

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter to start subtitle (edition# ed.). Location: Publisher.

Ebooks

Ebook from a library database (ie. Ebook Central ProQuest)

Kerzner, H. (2017). Project management metrics, KPIS, and dashboards: A guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. Retrieved from https://0-ebookcentral.proquest.com

Ebook found online:

Barton, Clara. (1904). A story of the Red Cross: Glimpses of field work. New York, NY: D. Appleton and Company. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/30230

Ebook accessed using a specific reader

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com

Ebook format: There are two acceptable formats. As  guideline, when the information is available, cite an ebook with the same information as a print book, and add the URL.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter to start subtitle. Location: Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Capital letter to start subtitle. [Ebook version, if applicable]. Retrieved from URL

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Online

Website (entire website, not a webpage)

No citation is needed for an entire website. Include the website within the body of a paper.

"In my paper, I mention a website. I refer to the website as a whole, and I am not discussing a specific webpage or an article within a website. Do I need to create an in-text citation and a reference list citation?"

No. All you need to do is include the URL within the body of your paper, and you do not need to include the website and URL in your reference list at the end of the paper. In APA Style there is no specific formatting recommendations.

Two examples - full websites mentioned within a paper.

1) The Department of Health has just released a new website to help people identify and compare health care programs available in their area. The website is called HealthCare.gov at http://www.healthcare.gov/ This resource is easy to use and the interface is intuitive, but the website will not support members of the population not using the internet.

2) Kidspsych (http://www.kidspsych.org) is a wonderful interactive website for children. This resource is appropriate for children ages 3 to 10.

APA Style Blog: Websites & Webpages

Webpage (not an online journal, magazine or newspaper > use article format)

Webpage with author:

Doyle, A. (2017, July 1). Best questions to ask at a job interview: What to ask the employer during a job interview. The balance careers. Retrieved from https://www.thebalance.com/questions-to-ask-in-a-job-interview-2061205


Webpage without a person as the author - there are options!

Authors for websites are often corporations, organizations or governments. If there is no person listed as the author consider using a corporate/group name. Use a corporate/group name when an organization, rather than an individual, takes responsibility for the creation of a work. Ask yourself, whose website is it - what company, organization or government agency?

Webpage with no person as author. Use a corporate/group author.

United States government agency

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018, February 14). Traumatic brain injury: FDA actions and research. Retrieved from http://usgov.info/2018/02/14/traumatic-brain-injury-fda-actions-and-research/

U.S. Small Business Association. (n.d.). Build your business plan. Retrieved from https://www.sba.gov/tools/business-plan/1?interiorpage2015

Company:

Ben & Jerry's. (n.d.). Our history. Retrieved from https://www.benjerry.com/about-us

Samsung. (2018). Vision 2020. Retrieved from https://www.samsung.com/us/aboutsamsung/vision/vision2020/

Kaiser Permanente. (2013, November). Measuring quality and patient safety. Retrieved from https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org


Webpage with no author

Effective business plans: Strategies for managers. (2018, March 4). Retrieved  from www.businesspros.com

Format:      Title of webpage. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Retrieved from URL

In-text citation for no author:   ("First Few Words of Title," YEAR).    ("Effective Business Plans," 2018).

Is this website a newspaper, magazine or journal?

If the site refers to itself as a newspaper, magazine or journal cite the source using an article format. Scroll up to Articles - Online.

"There’s no governing authority who decides what’s a newspaper versus a website versus an online magazine versus something else entirely. Best
to look at how the site refers to itself and follow the convention associated with that. So if they call themselves a newspaper, italicize the name; otherwise, don’t." APA Style Blog [discussion post]

APA Style Blog: Writing Website [Webpage] In-Text Citations and References

APA Style Blog: Webpages. In-text citations and references & Multiple pages from the Same Website.

APA Style Blog: More on How to Cite Multiple Pages From the Same Website

Use these formats are for webpages - not articles from online journals, magazines or newspapers (see box: Articles)

Web page format - with author:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Title of page. Retrieved from URL

Web page format - without author.

Corporate Author. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Title of page. Retrieved from URL

Web page format - without author and no corporate name.

Title of page. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Retrieved from URL

Blogs, wikis, and posts on personal websites

Stephanie (2018, February 5). What to do if your Obamacare 1095-A column B is zero [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://poorerthanyou.com/category/taxes/

APA Style Blog on citing Blogs

Wikipedia

Business performance management. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved January 25, 2018 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_performance_management

Neurology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved December 15, 2017 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurology

APA Style Blog on citing Wikipedia

Entire blog, wiki, or personal website

"In my paper, I mention a blog. I refer to the blog as a whole, and I am not discussing a specific blog post. Do I need to create an in-text citation and a reference list citation?"

No. All you need to do is include the URL within the body of your paper, and you do not need to include the website and URL in your reference list at the end of the paper. In APA Style there is no specific formatting recommendations.

Two examples for mentioning the entire blog, wiki or personal website.  In the body of the paper:

1) At age 22, blogger Stephanee (Stephanie), started her the blog Poorer Than You (http://poorerthanyou.com). The posts are aimed a millennials and provide financial advice on a variety of topics.

2) I have learned a lot by reading the Psych Learning Curve blog (http://psychlearningcurve.org). This blog is an excellent resource for teachers.

Posts and information found within blogs, wikis and personal websites are likely to change and be updated frequently. Therefore, when citing these sources you need to include the retrieved date - this is the date you found it.

[Square Brackets]  APA Style recommends providing identifying information. If the information in the citation and URL do not clearly identify what it is you are citing, add [square brackets]. For example, [Blog post], [Wiki], [Personal website]

If there is no date, use (n.d.).

Titles for items in online communities are NOT italicized.

If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name or use the title in place of the author.

Format with author: 

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Title of webpage [Blog post]. Retrieved date from URL

Format no author: 

Title of page. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). [Blog post]. Retrieved date from URL

Podcast

Glass, I. (Producer). (2013, September 6). How I got into college [Audio podcast]. This American Life. Retrieved from http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/504/how-i-got-into-college

APA Style Blog: How to Cite a Podcast


Format

LastName, A. A. (Producer). (Year, Month Day {of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Title of Podcast Series. Retrieved from URL

Podcast without a series - stand alone

LastName, A. A. (Producer). (Year, Month Day {of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL

Gallagher, D. (2018, February 3). Is Google losing to Amazon? The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

APA Style Blog on citing newspapers

APA Style Blog on How to Cite a News Report

CNN (Producer). (2015, February 15). Boston sets new snow record [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/videos/weather/2015/02/15/newday-alesci-ripley-boston-sets-new-snow-record.cnn/video/playlists/top-news-videos/


Online Newspaper format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com

Online Magazine format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com

Online News broadcast video:

Producer Name (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video file]. Retrieve from http://www.someaddress.com

Youtube video

Forbes. (2018, January 19). Facebook Announces Algorithm Changes; Apple Brings Money Back To U.S. [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/39gFZawmKfM

Sasal, D. (2017, June 13) Project Management Simplified: Learn The Fundamentals of PMI's Framework [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/ZKOL-rZ79gs

APA Style Blog on citing YouTube

Film, Video, or DVD

Ruddy, A. (Producer). Coppola, F (Director). (1972). The Godfather. [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Titles for items in online communities are NOT italicized.

If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name.

Format - Film, Video, or DVD

Producer’s last name, first initial (Producer), & director's last name, first initial (Director). (Year of the film's release). Film Title. [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Name of the movie studio.

Author, A.A. (year, month day). Title. [Video]. Retrieved from http://clickSHAREinYouTubeURL.com

Corporate name. (year, month day). Title. [Video]. Retrieved from http://clickSHAREinYouTubeURL.com

Screen name. Title. (year, month day) [Video]. Retrieved from http://clickSHAREinYouTubeURL.com

Social Media

NY Review of Books. (2013, September 6). The total weight of jellyfish in the Black Sea is 10x greater than that of all fish caught around the world in a year http://j.mp/1aSt7wB [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/nybooks/status/376055502880665600

Obama, M. (2013, February 28). “We can give all our children the bright, healthy futures they so richly deserve.” —the First Lady on why… [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152608245040578&set=a.10150238318835578.467644.22092775577&type=1

Gaiman, N. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. It’s been four years since many authors had a good dinner. We are waiting. Many of us have our forks or chopsticks at the [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016

Reuters Top News [Reuters]. (2016, November 1). Inside David Bowie's art collection [Twitter moment]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/i/moments/793575609028915200

APA Style Blog: How to Cite a Twitter Moment

ALA Style Blog: How to Cite Social Media

Titles for items in online communities are NOT italicized.

If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name.

Format

Author, A.A. (year, month day). Title. [Social Media Platform]. Retrieve from http://socialmediaWebsite.com

Screen name. Title. (year, month day) [Social Media Platform]. Retrieve from http://clickSHAREinYouTubeURL.com

PDF

Hallam, A. (n.d). Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/index.html

U.S. Small Business Administration. (n.d.) SBA Learning Center: Checklist for how to write a business plan [PDF document]. Retrieved from https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/CHECKLIST_-_How_to_Write_a_Business_Plan.pdf

 
PDF ARTICLE: journal, magazine, newspaper!

Use the appropriate article format (database or online).

Rules for citing information found on the web:

No author? Start with the title and then the date. A screen-name can be used as the author. An organization/company can be the author.

Date? If a date is not specifically included with the item you are citing, look for the last updated date. No date type (n.d.)

Titles? Keep it simple - do not italicize website titles. This can get confusing:  If a webpage is part of a larger website, do not italicize the title of the page. If the webpage is an independent document on the website, do italicize the title of the page. This is also a judgment call that you will have to make. If you are not sure, do not italicize.

URL? Yes, include it. Retrieved from www.theURL.com

Retrieved on date? In general, do not include the retrieved date for most web sources. If a webpage is likely to change over time, such as a wiki or personal website, include the date that you looked at the page.

Author and website name? If the name of the website is the same as the name of the author, you do not need to include it a second time.

[Square Brackets]?  APA Style recommends providing identifying information - when needed for clarification. If the information in the citation and URL do not clearly identify what it is you are citing, add [square brackets]. For example, [Blog post], [Wiki], [Twitter post], [Facebook post] [Personal website], [PDF document], [Video], [Interview], [Data].

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Other

Reports

Barr, J. G. (2018). Artificial intelligence. Retrieved from Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies database.

MarketLine. (2013, April 29). NIKE, Inc.: Company profile. Retrieved from EBSCO Business Source Complete database.

Annual Report

American Psychological Association. (2013). 2012 annual report of the American
    Psychological Association [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/reports/2012-report.pdf

Unilever. (2015). Annual report and accounts 2015 strategic report [PDF]. Retrieved from https://www.unilever.com/Images/annual_report_and_accounts_ar15_tcm244-478426_en.pdf

APA Style Blog on citing annual reports

SEC Filing

Microsoft. (2005, September 25). Form 10-Q. Available from Mergent Online database.

Arrow International, Inc. (2009). 10-K Annual Report 2009. Retrieved from http://www.sec.gov/edgar.shtml

Government Report

San Francisco Department of Public Health. (2016). San Francisco community health needs assessment 2016 [PDF]. Retrieved from https://www.sfdph.org/dph/hc/HCAgen/HCAgen2016/May%2017/2016CHNA-2.pdf

U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Profile of undergraduate students: 2011-12. Web tables (NCES 2015-167). Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015167.pdf

Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Retrieved from http://URL

Name of company. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Retrieved from http://URL

Name of company. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Retrieved from library database name and/or URL.

Print report:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Location: Publisher Name.

 

Government

Report

National Cancer Institute. (2016). Taking part in cancer treatment research studies (Publication No. 16-6249). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/CRS.pdf

Office of the Inspector General U.S. Department of Justice. (2017, May). Review of the handling of sexual harassment and misconduct allegations by the department’s Civil Division. Retrieved from https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2017/e1703.pdf

U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Profile of undergraduate students: 2011-12. Web tables (NCES 2015-167). Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015167.pdf

APA Style Blog: How to Cite Government Report


U.S. Constitution

APA Style Blog states, "All citations of the U.S. Constitution begin with U.S. Const., followed by the article, amendment, section, and/or clause numbers as relevant."   APA Style Blog: How to Cite the U.S. Constitution in APA Style

In-text                   (U.S. Const. amend. II)

Reference             U.S. Const. amend. II

Congressional Bill

Equitable Health Care for Severe Mental Illnesses Act of 1993, S. 671, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. (1993).

Federal Statutes

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. §§ 2601–2654 (2006).

FORMAT: Name of the Statute, Tile number Source § Section number(s) (Year).

APA Style Blog: Writing References for Federal Statutes

The parts of the citation for federal statutes:

  • name of the statute
  • title number
  • name of the source in which you found the statute
  • section number(s) of the statute
  • year of the source in which you found the statute

APA Style Blog on citing federal statutes

Format: Government Report

Government Agency. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Retrieved from http://URL

Format: Congressional Bill

Title, Bill or Resolution Number, Number of Congress Cong., Number of Session Sess. (Year).

Format: Federal Statutes

Name of the Statute, Title number Source § Section number(s) (Year).

Statistics & Data Sets

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2016). Consumer price index - all urban consumers, 1956-2016 [Time series]. Retrieved from http://data.bls.gov

Pew Research Center. (2016). June 10-July 12, 2015 – Gaming, jobs and broadband [Data file and codebook]. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org

World Bank, World Development Indicators. (2016). Firms using banks to finance working capital (% of firms) [Data file]. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IC.FRM.BKWC.ZS?view=chart

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data set]. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

APA Style Blog on citing data sets

U.S. Census

U.S. Census Bureau (2011). Selected housing characteristics, 2007-2011 American community survey 5-year estimates [Data file]. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP04

If a data set has a DOI, include it in the citation. For data sets without a DOI, add the Retrieved from URL.

The name of the data set is italicized. For example, Indiana income limits [Data set].

[Square Brackets] identify the source type. There is not a specific rule for use of [square brackets]. You must determine what the information is: [Data set], [Data file], [Data file and codebook], and so on. [Square Brackets] are optional, but are recommended because they can improve a citation.

Format:

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set [Data Set]. Retrieved from http://URL

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set [Data Set]. doi:##########

Maps

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2009). Cahaba River Natural Refuge [map]. Retrieved from https://www.fws.gov/cahabariver/maps.html

International Monetary Fund. (2017, May 8). IMF lending at a glance [Interactive map]. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/map/lending/

Google Maps

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from Ingolstadt, Germany, to Geneva, Switzerland]. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from https://goo.gl/maps/ILt8O

APA Style on citing online maps

Interviews

Personal interviews that you conduct do not have references. Personal interviews are considered personal communication. Include any relevant and important information about the interview in the body of your paper. APA Style states, "An interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference to this is provided in the reference list. You may, however, cite the interview within the text as a personal communication" (APA Style).

1. Personal communication. In-text example:

The company's new initiatives will likely lead to rewriting the mission statement (J. Smith, personal communication, August 15, 2009).

2. Personal communication. In-text example:

J. Smith (personal communication, August 15, 2009) claims the company' new initiatives will likely lead to rewriting the mission statement.

Interviews - research participants.  APA Style Blog Let's Talk About Research Participants

An interview you read has a citation and reference. Where did you find the interview? Is it from a magazine article, website, blog, etc.? Use the appropriate APA Style format to create the reference.


Email & Personal Communications

Email & personal communications do not have references at the end of your paper, but you will create a citation within the body of your paper.

Why do personal communications not have references? References are created to direct your reader to the sources of information you used in your paper. With personal communications you cannot direct the reader to the source - to the phone conversation you had, to your email inbox, to the day of the interview - the reader of your paper cannot access these sources.

Include any relevant and important information about the email and personal communication in the body of your paper. Here is an example for the APA Style Blog:

K. M. Ingraham (personal communication, October 5, 2013) stated that she found her career as an educational psychologist intellectually stimulating as well as emotionally fulfilling.
Online

Impact investing. (n.d.). In Investopedia. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/impact-investing.asp

Reliability. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reliability

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Case Studies

Case Study published by Harvard Business School Publishing

Smith, S. (2003). Leadership. HBS No. 7-806-122. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Eisenmann, T., & Herman, K. (2006). Google, Inc. HBS No. 9-806-105. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Case Study published by Ivey Publishing

Bernhut, S. (n.d.). In conversation: Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Ivey ID: 9B02TC13. London, Canada: Ivey Publishing.

Case Study Format:

Author(s). (Year). Title of case study. HBS No. number of case study. City, State abbreviation or Country of publication: Publisher.

Author(s). (Year). Title of case study. Ivey ID. number of case study. City, State abbreviation or Country of publication: Publisher.

>> If the case study does not include these elements, it is likely a case study that is in an article format - cite as an article.

Case Study found in a textbook - Format:

Author(s) or editor(s) of the chapter or entry or case study. (Year of book). Title of chapter or entry or case study. In First initial. Last name, & First initial. Last name (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). City, State abbreviation or Country of publication: Publisher.

Tables

Tables: numerical values or text displayed in clearly designated columns and rows

Looking for: graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc. > see box Figures.

Click through the tabs and find in-text citation and reference examples.

Using Statista? Scroll down to the Statista box.

Video tutorial: APA Style for Figures and Tables


Created by Auckland University of Technology Library, and adapted with permission.

Tables: numerical values or text displayed in clearly designated columns and rows

Looking for: graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc. > see box Figures.

Tables usually show numerical value or textual information and are almost always characterized by a row-column structure. Any type of illustration other than a table is a figure.

General notes on tables:

  • Tables are located at the end of your paper, after the reference list and before any appendixes. Each table is on a separate page.
  • Tables may use single-spacing or one-and-a-half spacing (p. 229).
  • Information necessary for understanding the table and definitions of abbreviations used within the table appear in a table note. (APA Style Blog)
  • All tables must be cited in-text and discussed within the body of your paper, and be included in your reference list.
Basic instructions for formatting tables

Number tables sequentially (i.e.if you have more than one table in your writing) e.g. Table 1, Table  2 .....

  • Each table must be referred to in the text, using a capital T,  for example: ...as shown in Table 1

Title is placed directly above the table itself and below the table number.

  • Brief but clear and explanatory, in italics and with major words capitalized with no full stop.

Note is placed directly below the table, the word "Note" in italics with a full stop, for example: Note.

  • Explain abbreviations, symbols etc
  • Acknowledge the source of the table
  • Include a copyright statement at the end of the note. 

     ​  For specific and probability note (section 5.16, p 138).

Ruling (Lines)

  • Limit the use of lines to those that are necessary
  • Appropriately positioned white space can be an effective substitute.

​Spacing

  • Tables  may be submitted either single or double spaced. Consider readability (section 5.17, p 141).

Example

Table 1

Sales of  Take Home Ice Cream in New Zealand

Note. MAT= moving annual total, From ACNielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand .Copyright 2010 by The Nielsen Company.


Created by Auckland University of Technology Library, and adapted with permission.

APA Style on citing Tables & Figures

Table reproduced in your paper

Use this format for tables you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Note format - note under a table

Note. Adapted/Reprinted from Title of Book (p.XX), by  A.B. Author, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright (year) by title of Publisher.

Example:

Note. Reprinted from Employment relations in New Zealand (p 98), by E. Rasmussen, 2009, Auckland, New Zealand. Pearson. Copyright (2009) by Erling Rasmussen. 

In-text citation:

...as shown in Table 1, no compensation...

Reference list entry:

Use the reference style for books - see go to box Books


Table referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you simply refer to a table, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

In-text citation:

....fifty eight percentage received compensation (Rasmussen, 2009).

Reference list entry:

Rasmussen, E. (2009). Employment relations in New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson.

Table reproduced in your paper

Use this format for tables you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Note format - note under a table

Note. Adapted/Retrieved/Reprinted from "Title of  Article" by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname.Year, Journal Title, Volume(issue), page(s). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder.     

  In-text citation:

... as shown in Table 1

Reference list entry:

Use the reference style for articles - see box Articles.


Table referred to but not reproduced in your paper

If you simply refer to a table, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

In-text citation:

....the multivariate longitudinal models (Bainter & Howard, 2016)

Reference list entry:

Bainter, S.A., Howard, A.L. (2016). Comparing within-person effects from multivariate longitudinal models. Developmental Psychology. 52 (12) 1955–1968. doi.10.1037/dev0000215 

Table reproduced in your paper

Use this format for tables you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Note Format : note below a table

Note. General notes, including definitions of abbreviations. Retrieved from (Name of Database). Copyright (year) by XXX.

Example:

Table 1

Percentage of Men and Women Who Have Bought Fruit and Vegetable Products in the Last Four Weeks

Note. wc = weighted count, shown in thousands; v% =vertical percentage, showing which % of the column group also belongs to the row group; h% = horizontal percentage showing which percentage of the row group also belongs to the column group. Retrieved from Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand database. Copyright 2015 by Roy Morgan New Zealand Ltd. 

In-text citation:

.... as shown in Table 2

Reference list entry:

Roy Morgan New Zealand. (2015). Percentage of men and women who have bought fruit and vegetable products in the last four weeks, April- December, 2015 [Table]. Retrieved from Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand database. 


Table referred to but not reproduced in your paper

In-text citation:

...fewer men than women bought vegetables (Roy Morgan, New Zealand, 2010)

Reference  List entry:

Roy Morgan New Zealand. (2010). Percentage of men and women who have bought fruit/vegetables in the last seven days, August 2009-July [Table]. Retrieved from Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand database.

Table reproduced in your paper

Use this format for tables you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Note format - note below a table

Note. Include the title of the document if the table title does not provide enough information. Adapted/Retrieved/Reprinted from Source website. Copyright (Year) by Name of copyright Holder. 

Example:

Table 1

Percentage of New Zealand Population Who Have Never Worked by Age Group.
By age group
June 2016 quarter

 Age group (years)                                                   

 Never-worked group 
(% of total age group)

 15–19

 48.5

 20–24

 8.4

 25–29

 3.4

 30–34

 1.8

 35–39

 1.5

Note. Adapted from http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/income-and-work/employment_and_unemployment/people-never-worked.aspx. Copyright (2016) by Statistics New Zealand. 

In-text citation:

...as shown in Table 1, young people make up most of the never-worked group...

Reference list entry:

Use the reference style for websites - see box Online, tab Websites.


Table referred to but not reproduced in your paper

If you refer to a table but don’t provide a copy of it in your assessment, simply give an in-text citation in the usual way

In-text citation:

...twenty four year olds who never worked (Statistics New Zealand, 2016).

Reference list entry:

Statistics New Zealand. (2016). Percentage of New Zealand population who have never worked, June 2016 quarter [Table]. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/income-and-work/employment_and _unemployment/people-never-worked.aspx

Table - compiled from a variety of sources

Multi source data

If you create your own table by compiling data from multiple sources, you will still need to cite where you got your information from. You do not need to give the full bibliographic citation in the note, an author and date is sufficient. 

Note format - note under table:

Note. Data for ABC from Author (date), from  XYZ from Author (date), and MNO from Author (date).

In-text citation: 

As shown in Table 3.......

Reference list entry:

Note: all the sources you used should have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List even though the information in the Note field uses a lot of the same information.

Multiple kinds of data

If you have multiple kinds of data (population figures, employment information... etc.) in one table you would describe each set of data)

Note format - note under Table:

Note. Population figures for ABC from Author (date), and for XYZ from Author (date). Data for total unemployed for ABC from Author (date) and for  XYZ from Author (date).

Reference list entry:

Note: all the sources you used should have a full bibliography entry in your reference list even though the information in the Note uses a lot of the same information.

 For more information see:

APA Style blog for figures & tables

Reference List

Examples of references for tables.

Retrieved from a book

New Strategist. (2008). Women's time use by age, 2007 [Table]. In New Strategist Editors, American women: Who they are and how they live (4th ed.). Ithaca, NY: New Strategist Publications, Inc.

Retrieved from a online source

US Census Bureau. (2002). Industries in Which California Ranks First in Terms of Sales or Receipts Per Capita [Table]. 2002 Economic Census. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/econ/census02/data/tops/TOPSTCA.HTM

National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). [Chart showing racial makeup of San Francisco Unified School District students under age 18]. Common Core of Data. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/districtsearch/


If the table you find does not have a title, then describe the content in [square brackets].

Format: Table

Author. (Publication Date). Title of  table [Table]. In author or editor of work Title of work. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Author. (Publication Date). Title of table [Table]. Title of website. Retrieved from URL

Author. (Publication Date). [Title of table] [Table]. Title of website. Retrieved from URL

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Figures

Figures: graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc.

Looking for tables > use formatting information in the box Tables.

Click through the tabs and find in-text citation and reference examples.

Using Statista? Scroll down to the Statista box.

Video tutorial: APA Style for Figures and Tables


Created by Auckland University of Technology Library, and adapted with permission.

Figures: graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos, etc.

Looking for tables > using formatting information in the box Tables.

A figure may be a chart, a graph, a photograph, a drawing, or any other illustration or nontextual depiction. Any type of illustration other than a table is referred to as a figure.

Caption:

When you use a figure that has been adapted or copied directly from another source, you need to reference that original source. This reference appears as a caption underneath the figure (image):

  • don't include a title on top - the caption is your title
  • concise explanation of the figure; i.e. a brief but descriptive phrase
  • include copyright information
  • format your caption - use italics and a capital F for Figure and sequential numbering (if you have more than one Figure)
Legend (if needed):

A legend explains the symbols used in the figure. It should have the same kind and proportion of lettering that appear in the rest of the figure.

  • capitalize major words in the legend
  • place the legend within the figure (it may already be there if you have copied the graph from elsewhere)
General rules:
  • Number all figures with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in text, regardless of whether a more detailed discussion of the figure occurs later in the paper. For example, Figure 1...Figure 2...etc.
  • Refer to the figure in your writing - no italics, but with capital F, for example "In Figure 1..."
  • Copyright permission for using figures and images in theses/dissertations/exegeses - obtain written copyright permission from the copyright holder if you reproduced or adapted a figure from a copyrighted source. If you are adapting material from multiple sources, and integrating them into a single figure, you might need to include multiple permission statements, one for each source.
  • Figures must have a reference in your Reference List.
Multiple Sources:

See Simon Fraser University's instructions for citing multi-sources.


Created by Auckland University of Technology Library, and adapted with permission.

APA Style on citing Tables & Figures

Figure reproduced in your paper

Use this format for figures you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Caption Format - caption under a figure
Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Book Title (page number), by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.

Example:

Figure 1. FinSec's communication networks. Reprinted from Employment Relations in New Zealand (2nd ed., p.355), by E. Rasmussen, 2009, Auckland, N.Z: Pearson. Copyright 2009 by Erling Rasmussen.

In-text citation:

This is clearly indicated in Figure 1,...

Reference list entry:

Rasmussen, E. J. (2009). Employment relations in New Zealand (2nd ed.). Auckland, NZ.: Pearson.


Figure referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you simply refer to a figure, format the in text-citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

In-text citation:

... interpretations of the painting “Mona Lisa” (Gombrich 1995, p. 203).

Reference list entry:

Gombrich, E. H. (1995). The story of art (16th ed.). London, England: Phaidon.

Figure reproduced in your paper

Use this format for figures you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Caption Format - caption under a figure
Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from “Title of Article,” by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Journal Title, Volume(issue), page number. Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.

Example:

                   

Figure 1. Factors influencing the formation of tourists' needs. Reprinted from "Factors that Obstruct Tourism Development in Bangladesh", by N. Jahan and S. Rahman, 2016, CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, 7 (9), p.53. Copyright 2016 by Chinniah Lakshmiammal Educational Academy & Research (CLEAR) Foundation.

In-text citation:

As shown in Figure 1, there are five groups of factors that influence...

Reference list entry:

Jahan, N., & Rahman, S. (2016). Factors that obstruct tourism development in bangladesh. CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, 7(9), 48–55.


Figure referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you simply refer to a figure and do not include it in your text, format the in text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

In-text citation:

... in the installation "Talking about the Weather"... (Randerson, 2007, p. 446).

Reference list entry:

Randerson, J. (2007). Between reason and sensation: Antipodean artists and climate change. Leonardo,40(5), 442–448. doi:10.1162/leon.2007.40.5.442

Figure reproduced in your paper

Use this format for figures you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Caption Format - caption under a figure
Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Retrieved from Title of the database. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.
Examples:

Example from ACNielsen Market Information Digest database

Figure 1. The market location and dollar sales of meat pies in New Zealand. SMAP is the segment of market for the Auckland Province, SMLNI for the Lower North Island, SMSI for the South Island; MAP is the moving annual total. Retrieved from Nielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand database. Copyright 2011 by The Nielsen Company.

 

Example: from Passport (Euromonitor) database

 

Figure 2.  Trade volume of ready to drink high strength premixes sold in New Zealand, measured in 000 litres. Retrieved from Passport database. Copyright 2010 by Euromonitor International.

In-text citation:

As Figure 1 shows, sales of meat pies ...

As shown in Figure 2, ...

Reference list entry:

Euromonitor International. (2010). Trade volume of ready to drink high strength premixes in New Zealand, measured in 000 liters [Graph]. Retrieved from Passport database.

The Nielsen Company. (2011). The market location and dollar sales of meat pies in New Zealand, March 2009– March 2011 [Graph]. Retrieved from Nielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand database.


Figure referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you refer to a figure, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way:

In-text citation:

...trade volume...(Euromonitor International, 2010).

The painting ... (Pollock, 1942).

Reference list entry:

Passport graph (was GMID)

Euromonitor International. (2010). Trade volume of ready to drink high strength premixes in New Zealand, measured in 000 litres [Graph]. Retrieved from Passport database.

Image from a Library database

Pollock, J. (1942). Male and female [Painting]. Retrieved from ARTstor database.

Figure reproduced in your paper

Use this format for figures you COPY - reproduced exactly as they appear in another source. Use this format when you do not make any modifications or add data to the table.

Caption Format - caption under a figure
Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. From Title of Website, Retrieved from URL. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.
Examples:

Figure 1. Vermeer, J. (c. 1665). Girl with a pearl earring. From Mauritshuis Royal Picture Gallery, The Hague. Retrieved from http://www.mauritshuis.nl/index.aspx?Chapterid=2295. Reprinted with permission.

Figure 2. America's Army screen dump showing soldiers and watch tower. From America's Army (Version 3). Retrieved from http://www.americasarmy.com. Copyright 2010 by America’s Army.

In-text citation:

As Figure 1 shows, ...

As shown in Figure 2, ...

Reference list entry:

America's Army screen dump showing soldiers and watch tower [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.americasarmy.com.

Vermeer, J. (c. 1665). Girl with a pearl earring [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.mauritshuis.nl/index.aspx?Chapterid=2295.


Figure referred to and not reproduced in your paper

If you refer to a figure, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry in the usual way.

In-text citation:

... facial expression reminiscent of Munch’s The Scream.

Reference list entry:

  • Not every reference to an artwork needs a reference list entry, for example, if you refer to a famous painting, as above, it would not need a reference.

Image online

McCahon, C. (1954). Manukau [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.mccahonhouse.org.nz/fifties/5360manukau1954.asp?artwork=19

Photograph online

Hamilton, D. (1975). South of France fantasy [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.rennart.co.uk/posters.html

Image online - no author

Radiating ripples [Photograph]. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/divers28/10.htm

Image online - no author, title or date

[Untitled photograph of a giraffe]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.birminghamzoo.com/animals/

Notes:

  • many images found online have few details, but always check for extra information by:
    • clicking on or hovering your mouse over the image
    • looking at the bottom of the image
    • looking at the URL
  • if there is no title, create a short descriptive one yourself and put it in square brackets e.g. [...]

 

Reference List

Examples of references for figures.

Retrieved from a library database

Euromonitor International. (2013). Youth unemployment rate vs. total unemployment rate: 2006-2011 [Graph]. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport database.


Format: Figure

Author. (year created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved from database name or URL.

No author? Use a corporate/agency/company (as known as group author name), or a screen name. If this is not an option, use the title in place of the author.

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Ads and Ad Age DataCenter

Ad from a magazine or newspaper

Clairol [Advertisement]. (2003, May). Newsweek, 11(3), 22.

Ad Age DataCenter

Crain Communications Inc. (2017). Marketing fact pack 2018 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://adage.com/d/resources/resources  /whitepaper/marketing-fact-pack-2018

BizJournals (via American City Business Journals)

Dittmer, M. (2018, March 16). Busiest Bay Area airlines. San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved from BizJournals database.

CQ Researcher

Karaim, R. (2013, December 13). Chemical and biological weapons.CQ Researcher, 23, 1053-1076. Retrieved CQ Researcher database.

CQ Researcher Format: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of report. CQ Researcher, Volume number, Page numbers. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com

**CQ Researcher database has a citation tool - CITE NOW

Britannica Academic & Encyclopaedia Britannica

Library database

Fisher, W. W. (2018). Patent. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from Britannica Academic database.

Online

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017, February 9). World intellectual property organization (WIPO). Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/World-Intellectual-Property-Organization

Business Source Complete

Is it an article?  Use the format: Articles - library database

Is it a report? >> Use the format: Reports

The database Business Source Complete has a citation tool. Click CITE and select APA citation format. Review the citation and edit it.

EIU.com (Economist Intelligence Unit)

Economist Intelligence Unit. (2011, April). Country report: India. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.

Faulkner Reports

Reports from these databases: Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies (FAITS), and  Faulkner Security Management Practices.

Use APA Style format for reports.

Barr, J. G. (2018). Artificial intelligence. Retrieved from Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies database.

Keston, G. (2019). Network access control. Retrieved from Faulkner Security Management Practices database.

Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Retrieved from http://URL

Name of company. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Retrieved from http://URL

Name of company. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Retrieved from library database name and/or URL.

Print report:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). Title of document (version number if provided). Location: Publisher Name.

 

Gale eBooks

E-Commerce: Consumer Products. (2017). In Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries (7th ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Retrieved from Gale eBooks.


The database Gale eBooks (formally Gale Virtual Reference Library) has a citation tool. Click it and select APA citation format. Review the citation and edit it.

Harvard Business Review

Is it an article? >> Use the article format.

Is it a case study? >> Use the case study format.

IBISWorld - US, China, & Global

Reports

Dai, R. (2010, November). IT consulting in the US: IBISWorld industry report 54151. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

West, M. (2017, October). Bars & nightclubs in California. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

LexisNexis Academic

Article

Krauss, C. (2008, August 30). Surge in natural gas has Utah driving cheaply. New York Times, 157(54418), p. A1. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic.


LexisNexis company dossiers pull together information from different sources (e.g. Corporate Affiliations  and Disclosure). Cite the  publisher of the information you use.

Corporate Affiliations. (2015, September 25). McDonald's Corporation. Corporate Affiliations. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.

MarketLine Report (retrieved using Business Source Complete)

Reports

MarketLine. (2013, March). Footwear in the United States: MarketLine industry profile. Retrieved from EBSCO Business Source Complete database.

MarketLine. (2013, April 29). Company profile: NIKE, Inc. Retrieved from EBSCO Business Source Complete database.

Mergent Online

Reports

Mergent Inc. (n.d.). Apple, Inc.: Business segments. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.uromonitor International.

Mergent Inc. (2014, February 28). McDonald's Corp.: Ford Equity research report. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.

SEC Filing

Apple Inc. (2013, October 30). Form 10-K. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.

Microsoft. (2005, September 25). Form 10-Q. Available from Mergent Online database.

Mintel

Reports

Romanowski, S. (2012, November). Sun protection and sunless tanners - US. Retrieved from Mintel database.

Smith, D. (2018, February). Men's and women's underwear and sleepwear - US - February 2018. Retrieved from Mintel database.

Morningstar Investment Research Center

Reports

Google, Inc. (2011, December 31). Form 10-K. Retrieved from Morningstar Investment Research database.

Morningstar. (n.d.). Google: Key ratios. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from Morningstar Investment Research database.

Morningstar. (2014, February 28) Fidelity Blue Chip Growth: Rating and riskRetrieved from Morningstar Investment Research database.

Reichart, K. R. (2014, March 6). Fidelity Blue Chip Growth: Fund analyst report. Retrieved from Morningstar Investment Research database.

Summer, R. (2014, February 25). Google, Inc.: Stock analyst report. Retrieved from Morningstar Investment Research database.

Passport (via Euromonitor International)

Reports

Euromonitor International. (2011, January 10). American Airlines fights the distribution model. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport database.

Euromonitor International. (2010, March 15). Starbucks Corp - hot drinks - USA. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport database.

Euromonitor International. (2013). Youth unemployment rate vs. total unemployment rate: 2006-2011 [Graph]. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport database.

Euromonitor International. (2010). Trade volume of ready to drink high strength premixes in New Zealand, measured in 000 liters [Graph]. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport database.

Pew Research Center

Lopez, G., Ruis, N.G. & Patten, E. (2017, September 8) Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/08/key-facts-about-asian-americans/

Shearer, E. & Gottfried, J. (2017, September 6). In 2017, two-thirds of U.S. adults get news from social media [Table]. In News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017. Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2017/09/07/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2017/pi_17-08-23_socialmediaupdate_0-01/

Pew Research Center. (2016). June 10-July 12, 2015 – Gaming, Jobs and Broadband [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org

Reports

Pew Research Center. (2018, January 2018). They’re waiting longer, but U.S. women today more likely to have children than a decade ago: More than half of never-married women in their early 40s have given birth [Report]. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/01/18/theyre-waiting-longer-but-u-s-women-today-more-likely-to-have-children-than-a-decade-ago/

PrivCo

Reports

PrivCo. (2014, February 11). Pinterest Inc.: Private company financial report. Retrieved from PrivCo database.

PrivCo. (2008, February). Spotify Ltd. receives Series A investment from Creandum AB, Li Ka-Shing, Northzone Ventures, and others. Retrieved from PrivCo database.

PrivCo. (n.d.). Able Planet, Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved March 23, 2017 from PrivCo database.

PrivCo. (2014, February 11). Pinterest Inc.: Private company financial report. Retrieved from PrivCo database.

ReferenceUSA

Infogroup, Inc. (2017). List of brewers in Ramsey County, MN. Retrieved from ReferenceUSA database.

Infogroup, Inc. (n.d.). Starbucks Corp [Company profile]. Retrieved from ReferenceUSA database.

S&P Global NetAdvantage

Industry Survey

Snyder, K. (2017, October). Health care equipment and supplies. CFRA Industry Surveys [PDF]. Retrieved from S&P Global NetAdvantage database.

Statista

Library database - Statista - citing data and charts

When you are viewing data, look for the citation button. SELECT CITATION. From the drop-down menu, click APA. We recommend you edit the citation. Note, Statista uses many difference SOURCES - the source is in the place of the author.

Atlas Van Lines. (n.d.). Internal factors that influenced employee relocations in the United States in 2017 [Chart]. In Statista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieve from Statista database.

Priori Data. (n.d.). Leading iPhone apps in the Apple App Store worldwide in January 2018, by revenue (in million U.S. dollars). In Statista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieved from Statista database.

Library database - Statista - citing a full report

Collignon, H. & Sultan, N. (2014, November). Winning the business of sports 2014. Retrieved from Statista database.

Janßen, B., Krützfeldt, W., Ramcke, K. & Staffa, V. (2014, August). Industry report - Computer and electronic product manufacturing NAICS Code 334. Retrieved from Statista database.

Statista. (2018). Coffee market in the U.S. [Report]. Retrieved from Statista database.


Online - using Statista's website - citing data and charts

When there is no author name, use the SOURCE name in place of the author. Statista uses many difference SOURCES. Look under the table or figure for the word SOURCE.

ITU. (2011, October). Number of active mobile broadband subscriptions worldwide from 2005 to 2011 (in millions) [Chart]. In Statista. Retrieved from http://www.statista.com/statistics/186337/number-of-mobile-broadband-subscriptions-worldwide-since-2005/

Valuline

Value Line Publishing. (2010, November 26). Ford Motor. Value Line Investment Survey.  Retrieved from Value Line database.

APA Style Notes

Retrieved from https://URL

Retrieved from URL not required for library database citations.

A citation for an article from a library database does not require the URL of the database.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) states,

In general, it is not necessary to include database information. Journal coverage in particular database may change over time; also, if using an aggregator such as EBSCO, OVID or ProQuest (each of which contain many discipline-specific databases, such as PsycINFO), it may be unclear exactly which database provided the full text of an article. (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 192)


ONLINE! Retrieved from URL

Include this!

Retrieve from URL is important for items found freely available online. APA rules recommend using the homepage URL when an item can be easily located - such as URLs for news websites or online databases such as Hathi Trust and Internet Archive. Here is an example - only the homepage URL is used, not the full webpage URL.

Gallagher, D. (2018, Feb. 3) Is Google Losing to Amazon? Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com

Retrieved date is only included in a reference if the information cited is likely to change.

In general, do not include retrieved date within a citation, unless it is required by your instructor, or you are citing a blog, wiki, and a post from a personal website.

Example of information likely to change:

Neurology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 8, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurology

[Square Brackets] 

[Square Brackets] have several functions in APA Style. Regardless of the function, words within square brackets are your words.

1) [Square brackets] identify source types. APA Style recommends (not requires) providing identifying information when the title and other information in the citation does not identify the source. Add [square brackets] when needed to clarify what the item is. For example, [Case study], [Blog post], [Wiki], [Twitter post], [Facebook post] [Personal website], [PDF document], [Excel document], [Video], [Interview], [Data], [Data set].

Example:

Stephanie (2018, February 5). What to do if your Obamacare 1095-A column B is zero [Blog post]. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from http://poorerthanyou.com/category/taxes/


2)  Use square brackets If you’re referencing an unusual item.

APA Style Blog: Using Square Brackets


3) Use square brackets when there is missing information - for example, missing date and title.

APA Style Blog: Missing Pieces: How to Write an APA Style Reference Even Without All the Information

Do you have questions about authors?

No author?

Authors for websites are often corporations, organizations or governments. If there is no person as the author consider using a corporate/group name.

Use a corporate/group name when an organization, rather than an individual, takes responsibility for the creation of a work. Ask yourself, whose website is it - what company, organization or government agency?

No author? Are you sure? Is it a Group/corporate Author?

APA Style Blog on group authors

If there is no author and no group/corporate author, begin the reference with the TITLE in the author-place. Use a shortened version of the title in when using in-text citations.

How to write an APA Style reference when information is missing

No date? Missing title? Missing source?

APA Style Blog on missing information

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