How does it work?
Instructors are responsible for determining any fair use exceptions to copyright and to obtain any necessary permissions to use copyrighted works. Items within the Business Library's databases are available for use in Course e-reserves without any additional steps for clearance.
Librarians can provide guidance and resources to help instructors navigate copyright issues.
To evaluate fair use of materials for teaching and course reserves use a Fair Use Checklist.
Course reserves requests require careful consideration with regard to copyright and fair use. Materials are evaluated on an individual basis. While some items will be straightforward determinations of fair use, other items will require a more thorough analysis. The considerations can be complex. For example: the repeated or long-term use of a particular work is discouraged as this kind of use can run afoul of copyright norms even when the initial short-term use may have been acceptable.
The library cannot provide course reserve materials if the nature, scope, or extent of the materials exceeds reasonable limits of copyright law and fair use. The good news is Course Reserves are ideal for linking to articles, ebooks, videos that are available via the library databases.
For material that is not in the Library's databases and/or does not meet fair use guidelines, instructors must obtain permission to use the copyrighted work directly from the copyright owner or through a third-party service such as the Copyright Clearance Center. Instructors may also consider assembling a "reader" or "course pack." See General Course Reserves Guidelines #10.
Course Reserves Guidelines
1. How do I request items to be placed in course e-reserves?
- Course Reserves are instructor initiated. The Instructor is responsible for requesting the set up of course e-reserves each term
- Archives of course e-reserves from past terms are maintained for two years
- Email requests to: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Required information: term, course name, course number, and instructor’s full name
- Include full citations for items requested: title, author, publication year, edition, article and journal title, volume/issue
2. Are there timelines and due dates?
- Please send requests prior the start of term to email@example.com
- Course reserve requests and edits are accepted at any time
3. What is the best way to direct my students to course e-reserves?
- Direct students to the library homepage. The Search Course Reserves tool is on the right side.
- Sharing the the direct class Course Reserve URL is not recommended as it changes every term
- Here is a communication template for your syllabus and eLearning:
- Go to the Business Library homepage. http://www.ggu.edu/libraries/business-library/
- Click: Search Course Reserves (right side)
- In the search box type the course code or instructor’s name
- Click the correct section
- The term password for course reserves changes each year, but is available via a link in all syllabi. If not, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
4. What can be placed in course e-reserves?
- Journal articles may be linked through course reserves - with exception of Harvard Business Review (see #4). Uploading PDFs is not permissible as it risks copyright problems.
- You may use HBR articles for your class, but we cannot link to them in course e-reserves due to contractual restrictions from Harvard.
- Scanned sections or chapters (to be supplied by instructor). To comply with Fair Use, there are restrictions when scanning material for course reserves. Consider these guidelines:
- Typically, one chapter or 10% of the book whichever is less.
- Workbook pages may not be scanned.
Remember – these are guidelines, not law, and other considerations may apply. Generally, the larger the amount scanned, the less likely fair use applies.
- Videos and websites can be linked within course reserves.
- Lawfully obtained copies possessed by the faculty, library, or another unit of the educational institution may be posted in course reserves. These may include public domain documents or class notes.
*** In the limited situations in which materials are scanned and posted in course reserves (PDFs, WORD docs, etc.) they should only remain there for the length of time needed to serve a particular assignment or other course objective. These items should not remain in the course permanently as this risks copyright infringement.
5. What cannot be placed on course e-reserves?
- Harvard Business Review (HBR) articles may not be posted or linked to directly from Course e-Reserves.
- Harvard Business Publishing imposes these copyright restrictions.
- The library provides a research guide designed to help students locate HBR articles the database Business Source Complete - a link is added to course reserves to facilitate the search process. For articles and case studies not available via Business Source Complete, you can set up HBR Course packs. At GGU, HBR course packs are administered by the individual schools, not the Business Library. Watch a short video explaining the ins-and-outs of using HBR materials: HBR Tutorial for Faculty. For more information, click the tab HBR Case Studies and Articles.
- Review electronic copies of textbooks may not be placed on reserve due to copyright restrictions unless written permission is granted by the publisher.
- Workbooks and other consumables - materials meant for individual one-time use may not be placed on reserve or copied and posted digitally.
6. Can articles obtained through interlibrary loan be placed in course e-reserves?
- Articles obtained through interlibrary loan may be placed on reserve; however, these items are likely to be copyrighted works and require fair use analysis. Use the Fair Use Checklist.
- Interlibrary loan articles placed in course reserves in PDF or other electronic file format must remain in course reserves only for the duration of its need in that course. Repeated or long-term use of a copyrighted work poses an infringement risk.
7. Linking to articles or placing copies (PDFs) in course e-reserves. Which better-adheres to copyright?
- Best practice: link to items whenever possible, rather than uploading PDFs.
8. How do I determine when I need to obtain permission and when a Fair Use exception applies?
- Evaluate the materials. Refer to The Campus Guide to Copyright and the Fair Use Checklist.
- Use a Fair Use Checklist to make a determination.
- Good Faith. In doing the Fair Use analysis and retaining your notes, you will have evidence of your good faith intent to use the copyrighted material appropriately.
- If you do the analysis and determine that it weighs against Fair Use, do not submit the item for course e-reserves.
- Obtain permission. The Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) at is the first place to check for information on permissions and licensing. The CCC facilitates copyright compliance by providing one-stop-shopping for those seeking permissions to use materials. See #10 for other options.
9. How can I effectively adhere to copyright?
- Follow the guidelines in this document. It is important to follow best practices and to document a good faith effort to conform to copyright law when utilizing any Fair Use exceptions. It is in the interest of the entire academic community that we all observe these best practices.
- Fair Use Documentation. When utilizing a Fair Use exception to copyright, it is recommended that you document your good faith effort by conducting a Fair Use analysis and saving the notes as a record of your effort to conform to copyright restrictions. We encourage you to use a Fair Use Checklist.
- Discuss questions or concerns with librarians or the library director. Send your question to email@example.com
10. Should I create a Course Pack or use course e-reserves?
- First, consult with a librarian to learn if the items are freely available via the library databases.
- If you are using chapters and articles that require copyright permission, then you likely need to create a reader or course pack.
- Typically, these types of readers are sold to the students and the cost covers the fees for the copyright permissions, but not always. Talk with your department head.
- GGU's Book Store offers a service to instructors that secures the necessary permissions, assembles the reader and sells it to students. Contact the GGU Book Store manager for more information.
- Harvard Business Publishing Education has a "course pack" that is assembled, accessed, and for paid online. The HBR course packs are administered through the Schools, not the library.
- Best Alternative: Use the library ebooks and articles, and try Open Source and Open Educational Resources. Ask the librarians for help.